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Te Puna Hauora kaupapa, tikanga and kawa are embodied in the traditional concept of whanaungatanga.

Whanaungatanga encapsulates the tikanga of tapu, mana, and their expression through the principles of tika, pono and aroha. The following explanations for tapu, mana, tika, pono and aroha, are scribed from a 1999 hui conducted by Pa Henare Tate in 'whanaungatanga':




















Tapu can be broken down into three perspectives.
Firstly there is the intrinsic tapu or sacredness of being, for instance ‘te tapu i te atua’ (the tapu/sacredness of god/s), ‘te tapu i te tangata’ (the tapu/sacredness of people), ‘te tapu i te whenua’ (the tapu/sacredness of earth). The underlying principle here is that all living things (birds, rocks, tress etc) have an intrinsic sacredness.
Secondly, there is the tapu/sacredness of relationships between atua, tangata and whenua. Therefore the intrinsic sacredness of both a person and the earth must be acknowledged and respected in any relationship between them. Many believe that the relationship between people and earth is validated through the relationship between people and god/s. A person breaching the relationship with the earth via abuse i.e. burying toxic waste, is in effect also breaching their relationship with atua as well as whenua.
Thirdly there are tapu or sacredness as relating to tapu/restrictions. These restrictions support and enforce the intrinsic tapu and relationship tapu. An example of this kind of tapu would be ‘rahui’. Rahui is a limit or ban on use of a particular resource which is put in place either to protect the resource or people.
Mana is the spiritual power that creates, produces and restores tapu. It can be expressed in a number of ways including: Mana-whakahaere is the spiritual power and authority of people to order and determine their own lives according to tika, pono and aroha. Mana-tuku is the spiritual power and authority of those with tapu and mana to share of themselves and their resources with others. Aroha is the principle under-pinning mana-tuku. Manaaki is the act of sharing. Mana is also authority, prestige, honour bestowed by atua of people upon individuals or representatives.
Tika can be defined as the principle concerned with the right ordering of relationships, among atua, tangata and whenua, the right response to those relationships and the right exercise of mana. In other words the right way to do things
Pono is the principle that seeks to reveal reality and to achieve integrity of relationships. In other words it calls for honesty and integrity in all that we do.
Aroha is the principle of expressing empathy, compassion and joy for others in all that we do. Tika, pono and aroha are the principles of action by which we exercise tapu and mana. If one wants to have mana, one must first seek after tapu. To possess tapu one must exercise tika, pono, aroha.